Almenoff PL, Alexander LR, Spungen AM, Lesser MD and Bauman WA. Bronchodilatory effects of ipratropium bromide in patients with tetraplegia. Paraplegia 1995 33(5):27407 May.

Ayas, NT, McCool FD, Gore R, Lieberman SL and Brown R. Prevention of human diaphragm atrophy with short periods of electrical stimulation.  American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1999 159(6):2018-20 Jun.

Bach JR and Tilton MC. Life satisfaction and well-being measures in ventilator assisted individuals with traumatic tetraplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1994 75(6);626-32 Jun.

Bergman SB, Yarkony GM and Stiens SA. Spinal cord rehabilitation. 2. Medical complications. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1997 78(3 Suppl):S53-S58 Mar.

Cheng PT, Chen CL, Wang CM and Chung CY. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on cough capacity and pulmonary function in patients with acute cervical cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2006 38(1):32-6 Jan.

Como JJ, Sutton ER, McCunn M, Dutton RP, Johnson SB, Aarabi B and Scalea TM. Characterizing the need for mechanical ventilation following cervical spinal cord injury with neurologic deficit. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2005 59(4):912-6; discussion 916 Oct.

Cotton BA, Pryor JP, Chinwalla I, Wiebe DJ, Reilly PM and Schwab CW. Respiratory complications and mortality risk associated with thoracic spine injury. Journal of Trauma 2005 59(6):1400-7; discussion 1407-9 Dec.

DeLuca RV, Grimm DR, Lesser M, Bauman WA and Almenoff PL. Effects of a beta2-agonist on airway hyperreactivity in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury.  Chest 1999 115(6):1533-8 Jun. 

Dicpinigaitis PV, Grimm DR and Lesser M.  Cough reflex sensitivity in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury.  American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1999 159(5 Pt 1):1660-2 May.

Estenne M, Van Muylem A, Gorini M, Kinnear W, Heilporn A and De Troyer A. Effects of abdominal strapping on forced expiration in tetraplegic patients. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1998 157(1):95-8 Jan.

Frisbie JH. Breathing and the support of blood pressure after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2005 43(7):406-7 Jul.

Jaeger RJ, Turba RM, Yarkony GM and Roth EJ. Cough in spinal cord injured patients: comparison of three methods to produce cough. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1993 74(12):1358-61 Dec.

Jain NB, Brown R, Tun CG, Gagnon D and Garshick E. Determinants of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC in chronic spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006 87(10):1327-33 Oct.

Krieger LM and Krieger AJ. The intercostal to phrenic nerve transfer: an effective means of reanimating the diaphragm in patients with cervical spine injury. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 2000 105(4):1255-61 Apr.

Liaw MY, Lin MC, Cheng PT, Wong MK and Tang FT. Resistive inspiratory muscle training: its effectiveness in patients with acute complete cervical cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2000 81(6):752-6 Jun.

Lin VW, Hsiao IN, Zhu E and Perkash I. Functional magnetic stimulation for conditioning of expiratory muscles in patients with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2001 82(2):162-6 Feb.

Lin VW, Singh H, Chitkara RK, Perkash I.  Functional magnetic stimulation for restoring cough in patients with tetraplegia. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1998 79(5):517-22 May.

Linder SH. Functional electrical stimulation to enhance cough in quadriplegia. Chest 1993 103(1):166-9 Jan.

MacBean N, Ward E, Murdoch B, Cahill L, Solley M, Geraghty T and Hukins C. Optimizing speech production in the ventilator-assisted individual following cervical spinal cord injury: a preliminary investigation. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 2009 44(3): 382-93 May.

Mayberry JC, Wu IC, Goldman RK and Chesnut RM. Cervical spine clearance and neck extension during percutaneous tracheostomy in trauma patients. Critical Care Medicne 2000 28(10):3436-40 Oct.

Neville AL, Crookes P, Velmahos GC, Vlahos A, Theodorou D and Lucas CE. Esophageal dysfunction in cervical spinal cord injury: a potentially important mechanism of aspiration. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2005 59(4):905-11 Oct.

Peterson WP, Whiteneck GG and Gerhart KA. Chest tubes, lung entrapment, and failure to wean from the ventilator. Report of three patients with quadriplegia. Chest 1994 105(4):1292-4 Apr.

Peterson W, Charlifue W, Gerhart A and Whiteneck G. Two methods of weaning persons with quadriplegia from mechanical ventilators. Paraplegia 1994 32(2):98-103 Feb.

Pillastrini P, Bordini S, Bazzocchi G, Belloni G and Menarini M. Study of the effectiveness of bronchial clearance in subjects with upper spinal cord injuries: examination of a rehabilitation programme involving mechanical insufflation and exsufflation. Spinal Cord 2006 44(10):614-6 Oct.

Segal JL and Brunnemann SR. 4-Aminopyridine improves pulmonary function in quadriplegic humans with longstanding spinal cord injury. Pharmacotherapy 1997 17(3):415-23 May-Jun.

Shatney CH, Brunner RD and Nguyen TQ. The safety of orotracheal intubation in patients with unstable cervical spine fracture or high spinal cord injury. American Journal of Surgery 1995 170(6):676-9, discussion 679-80 Dec.

Singas E, Grimm DR, Almenoff PL and Lesser M.  Inhibition of airway hyperreactivity by oxybutynin chloride in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury.  Spinal Cord 1999 37(4):279-83 Apr.

Slack RS and Shucart W. Respiratory dysfunction associated with traumatic injury to the central nervous system. Clinics in Chest Medicine 1994 15(4):739-49 Dec.

Sorenson HM and Shelledy DC. AARC clinical practice guideline. Intermittent positive pressure breathing--2003 revision & update. Respiratory Care 2003 48(5):540-6 May.

Van Houtte S, Vanlandewijck Y and Gosselink R. Respiratory muscle training in persons with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Respiratory Medicine 100(11):1886-95, 2006 Nov.

Van Houtte S, Vanlandewijck Y, Kiekens C, Spengler CM and Gosselink R. Patients with acute spinal cord injury benefit from normocapnic hyperpnoea training. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2008 40(2):119-25 Feb.

Viroslav J, Rosenblatt R and Tomazevic SM. Respiratory management, survival, and quality of life for high-level traumatic tetraplegics. Respiratory Care Clinics of North America 1996 2(2):313-22 Jun.

Voelker KG, Chetty KG and Mahutte CK. Resolution of recurrent atelectasis in spinal cord injury patients with administration of recombinant human DNase. Intensive Care Medicine 1996 22(6):582-4 Jun.

Waites KB, Canupp KC, Edwards K, Palmer P, Gray BM and DeVivo MJ.  Immunogenicity of pneumococcal vaccine in persons with spinal cord injury.  Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1998 79(12):1504-9 Dec.

The Pulmonary Problems site of the PoinTIS Spinal Cord Medicine site of the SCI Manual for Providers is based on information in Spinal Cord Injury: Medical Management and Rehabilitation, G.M. Yarkony, ed., Gaithersburg, MD, Aspen Publishers, 1994, except for information where other papers are cited.