OVERVIEW: REFERENCES

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Bracken MB. Treatment of acute spinal cord injury with methylprednisolone: results of a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Journal of Neurotrauma 1991 8(Suppl 1):S47-50, discussion S51-2 Jul.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, Holford TR, Young W, Baskin DS, Eisenberg HM, Flamm E, Leo-Summers L, Maroon J, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury. Results of the Second National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study. New England Journal of Medicine 1990 322(20):1405-11 May 17.

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Bracken MB and Holford TR. Neurological and functional status 1 year after acute spinal cord injury: estimates of functional recovery in National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study II from results modeled in National Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study III. Journal of Neurosurgery 2002 96 (3 Suppl): 259-66 Apr.

Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Holford TR, Leo-Summers L, Aldrich EF, Fazl M, Fehlings MG, Herr DL, Hitchon PW, Marshall LF, Nockels RP, Pascale V, Perot PL Jr., Piepmeier J, Sonntag VK, Wagner F, Wilberger JE, Winn HR and Yound W.  Methylprednisolone or tirilazad mesylate administration after acute spinal cord injury: 1-year follow up.  Results of the third National Acute Spinal Cord Injury randomized controlled trial.  Journal of Neurosurgery 1998 89(5):699-706 Nov.

Burnett DM, Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Gourley EV 3rd and Cifu DX. Spinal cord injury "outliers": an analysis of etiology, outcomes, and length of stay. Journal of Neurotrauma 2000 17(9): 765-72 Sep.

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Burns AS and Ditunno JF. Establishing prognosis and maximizing functional outcomes after spinal cord injury: a review of current and future directions in rehabilitation management. Spine 2001 26(24 Suppl): S137-45, Dec 15.

Cardenas DD, Haselkorn JK, McElligott JM and Gnatz SM. A bibliography of cost-effectiveness practices in physical medicine and rehabilitation: AAPM&R white paper. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2001 82(5): 711-9 May.

Cardenas DD, Hoffman JM, Kirshblum S and McKinley W. Etiology and incidence of rehospitalization after traumatic spinal cord injury: a multicenter analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2004 85(11): 1757- 63 Nov.

Cengiz SL, Kalkan E, Bayir A, Ilik K and Basefer A. Timing of thoracolomber spine stabilization in trauma patients; impact on neurological outcome and clinical course. A real prospective (rct) randomized controlled study. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 2008 128(9):959-66 Sep.

Chandler DR, Nemejc C, Adkins RH and Waters RL. Emergency cervical-spine immobilization. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1992 21(10):1185-8 Oct.

Chen D. Functional electrical  stimulation: technical advances and clinical applications.  Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1997 11(1): 39-53 Feb.

Chen D, Apple DF Jr, Hudson LM and Bode R. Medical complications during acute rehabilitation following spinal cord injury--current experience of the Model Systems. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(11):1397-401 Nov.

Chen Y and DeVivo MJ. Epidemiology of extraspinal fractures in acute spinal cord injury: data from the Model Spinal Cord Injury Care Systems 1973-99. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. 2005 11:18-29 Sum.

Chinnock P and Roberts I. Gangliosides for acute spinal cord injury. The Cochrane Library 2005; (3): (ID #CD004444)

Cramer SC, Lastra L, Lacourse MG and Cohen MJ. Brain motor system function after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Brain 2005 128(12):2941-50 Dec.

Crim JR, Moore K and Brodke D. Clearance of the cervical spine in multitrauma patients: the role of advanced imaging. [Review] Seminars in Ultrasound, CT & MR 2001 22(4):283-305 Aug.

Curt A and Dietz V. Ambulatory capacity in spinal cord injury: significance of somatosensory evoked potentials and ASIA protocols in predicting outcome. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1997 78(1):39-43 Jan.

Curt A and Dietz V.  Electrophysiological recordings in patients with spinal cord injury: significance for predicting outcome [Review] Spinal Cord 1999 37(3):157-65 Mar.

Curt A, Keck ME and Dietz V. Functional outcome following spinal cord injury: significance of motor-evoked potentials and ASIA scores. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1998 79(1):81-6 Jan.

Degnan GG, Wind TC, Jones EV and Edlich RF. Functional electrical stimulation in tetraplegic patients to restore hand function. [Review] Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants 2002 12(3):175-88.

Delamarter RB and Coyle J.  Acute management of spinal cord injury.  Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons 1999 7(3):166-75 May-Jun.

Demetriades D, Charalambides K, Chahwan S, Hanpeter D, Alo K, Velmahos G, Murray J and Asensio J. Nonskeletal cervical spine injuries: epidemiology and diagnostic pitfalls. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2000 48(4): 724-7 Apr.

DeVivo MJ. Discharge disposition from model spinal cord injury care system rehabilitation programs. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(7): 785-90 Jul.

DeVivo MJ, Krause JS and Lammertse DP. Recent trends in mortality and causes of death among persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(11): 1411-9 Nov.

Dijkers MP and Yavuzer G. Short versions of the telephone motor Functional Independence Measure for use with persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(11): 1477-84 Nov.

Domeier RM, Frederiksen SM and Welch K. Prospective performance assessment of an out-of-hospital protocol for selective spine immobilization using clinical spine clearance criteria. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2005 46(2):123-31, Aug.

Eastwood EA, Hagglund KJ, Ragnarsson KT, Gordon WA and Marino RJ. Medical rehabilitation length of stay and outcomes for persons with traumatic spinal cord injury-1990-1997. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(11):1457-63 Nov.

Elliot SP, Orejula F, Hirsch IH, Lipshultz LI, Lamb DJ, and Kim ED. Testis biopsy findings in the spinal cord injured patient. Journal of Urology 2000 163(3): 792-5 May

Emery E, Aldana P, Bunge MB, Puckett W, Srinivasan A, Keane RW, Bethea J and Levi AD.  Apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury.  Journal of Neurosurgery 1998 89(6):911-20 Dec.

Fehlings MG, Furlan JC, Massicotte EM, Arnold P, Aarabi B, Harrop J, Anderson DG, Bono CM, Dvorak M, Fisher C, France J, Hedlund R, Madrazo I, Nockels R, Rampersaud R, Rechtine G and Vaccaro AR; Spine Trauma Study Group. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of maximum canal compromise and spinal cord compression for evaluation of acute traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. Spine 2006 31(15):1719-25 Jul 1.

Fehlings MG and Louw D. Initial stabilization and medical management of acute spinal cord injury. American Family Physician 1996 54(1):155-62 Jul.

Fehlings MG and Perrin RG. The timing of surgical intervention in the treatment of spinal cord injury: a systematic review of recent clinical evidence. Spine 2006 31(11 Suppl):S28-35; discussion S36 May 15.

Fehlings MG, Rao SC, Tator CH, Skaf G, Arnold P, Benzel E, Dickman C, Cuddy B, Green B, Hitchon P, Northrup B, Sonntag V, Wagner F and Wilberger J. The optimal radiologic method for assessing spinal canal compromise and cord compression in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Part II: Results of a multiyear study. Spine 1999 24(6):605-13 Mar 15.

Fehlings MG, Sekhon LH and Tator C. The Role and Timing of decompression in acute spinal cord injury: what do we know? What should we do? Spine 2001 26(24 Suppl):S101-10 Dec 15.

Fehlings MG and Tator CH.  An evidence-based review of decompressive surgery in acute spinal cord injury: rationale, indications, and timing based on experimental and clinical studies.  Journal of Neurosurgery 1999 91(1 Suppl):1-11 Jul.

Formal CS, Cawley MF, and Stiens SA. Spinal cord injury rehabilitation. 2. Functional outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1997 78(3 Suppl):S59-64 Mar.

Furlan JC, Krassioukov AV and Fehlings MG. Hematologic abnormalities within the first week after acute isolated traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: a case-control cohort study. Spine 2006 31(23):2674-83 Nov 1.

George ER, Scholten DJ, Buechler CM, Jordan-Tibbs J, Mattice C and Albrecht RM. Failure of methylprednisolone to improve the outcome of spinal cord injuries. American Surgeon 1995 61(8):659-63; discussion 663-4 Aug.

Gerndt SJ, Rodriguez JL, Pawlik JW, Taheri PA, Wahl WL, Micheals AJ and Papadopoulos SM.  Consequences of high-dose steroid therapy for acute spinal cord injury. Journal of Trauma 1997 42(2):279-84 Feb.

Greenwell MW, Mangold TM, Tolley EA and Wall BM. Kidney disease as a predictor of mortality in chronic spinal cord injury. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2007 49(3):383-93 Mar.

Grossman MD, Reilly PM, Gillett T and Gillett D. National survey of the incidence of cervical spine injury and approach to cervical spine clearance in U.S. trauma centers. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 1999 47(4): 684-90 Oct.

Guldner GT and Brzenski AB. The sensitivity and specificity of the digital rectal examination for detecting spinal cord injury in adult patients with blunt trauma. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2006 24(1):113-7 Jan.

Hadley MN, Walters BC, Grabb PA, Oyesiku NM, Przybylski GJ, Resnick DK, Ryken TC and Mielke DH. Guidelines for the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries. [Review] Clinical Neurosurgery 2002 49:407-98.

Hall KM, Cohen ME, Wright J, Call M and Werner P. Characteristics of the Functional Independence Measure in traumatic spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(11):1471-6 Nov.

Hendey GW, Wolfson AB, Mower WR and Hoffman JR. For the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality: results of the national emergency X-radiography utilization study in blunt cervical trauma. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2002 53(1):1-4 July.

Hoenig H, Hoff J, McIntyre L and Branch LG. The self-reported functional measure: Predictive validity for health care utilization in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2001 82(5):613-8 May.

Hurlbert RJ. The role of steroids in acute spinal cord injury: an evidence-based analysis. Spine 2001 26(24 Suppl):S39-46 Dec 15.

Juurlink BH and Paterson PG.  Review of oxidative stress in brain and spinal cord injury: suggestions for pharmacological and nutritional management strategies [Review].  Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 1998 21(4): 309-34 Oct.

Klose KJ, Jacobs PL, Broton JG, Guest RS, Needham-Shropshire BM, Lebwohl N, Nash MS and Green BA.  Evaluation of a training program for persons with SCI paraplegia using the Parastep 1 ambulation system: Part 1.  Ambulation performance and anthropometric measures.  Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1997 78(8): 789-793 Aug.

Krishnan RV. Botulinum toxin: from spasticity reliever to a neuromotor re-learning tool. International Journal of Neuroscience 2005 115(10):1451-67 Oct.

Kunihara T, Matsuzaki K, Shiiya N, Saijo Y and Yasuda K. Naloxone lowers cerebrospinal fluid levels of excitatory amino acids after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2004 40(4):681-90 Oct.

Kwan I, Bunn F and Roberts I. Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [computer file] 2001 2:CD002803.

Kwon BK, Curt A, Belanger LM, Bernardo A, Chan D, Markez JA, Gorelik S, Slobogean GP, Umedaly H, Giffin M, Nikolakis MA, Street J, Boyd MC, Paquette S, Fisher CG, Dvorak MF. Intrathecal pressure monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid drainage in acute spinal cord injury: a prospective randomized trial. Journal of Neurosurgery Spine 2009 10(3):181-93 Mar.

Levitt MA and Flanders AE. Diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in acute cervical spinal column injury. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 1991 9(2):131-5 Mar.

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Lipetz JS, Kirshblum SC, O'Conner KC, Voorman SJ and Johnston MV. Anemia and serum protein deficiencies in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 1997 20(3):335-40 Jul.

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Matsumoto T, Tamaki T, Kawakami M, Yoshida M, Ando M and Yamada H. Early complications of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate treatment in the followup of acute cervical spinal cord injury. Spine 2001 26(4): 426-30 Feb 15.

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McKinley WO, Seel RT and Hardman JT.  Nontraumatic spinal cord injury: incidence, epidemiology, and functional outcome.  Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1999 80(6):619-23 Jun.

Miyanji F, Furlan JC, Aarabi B, Arnold PM and Fehlings MG. Acute cervical traumatic spinal cord injury: MR imaging findings correlated with neurologic outcome-prospective study with 100 consecutive patients. Radiology 2007 243(3):820-7 Jun.

Mirza SK, Krengel WF 3rd, Chapman JR, Anderson PA, Bailey JC, Grady MS and Yuan HA.  Early versus delayed surgery for acute cervical spinal cord injury.  Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1999 359:104-14 Feb.

Molano Mdel R, Broton JG, Bean JA and Calancie B. Complications associated with the prophylactic use of methylprednisolone during surgical stabilization after spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 2002 96(3 Suppl):267-72 Apr.

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